Local government in Pennsylvania is a mosaic of 5,334 individual units. All were established by the State or provincial government and operate under laws of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Each unit is distinct and independent of other local units, although they may overlap geographically and may act together to serve the public.

Chapman Township, like most townships in Pennsylvania, is a “second class” township in that it has less than 300 persons per square mile. The governing body of second class townships is composed of three supervisors who are elected at-large for six-year terms.